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首页  >  升本资料 >易错集锦

​形容词和副词

【升本资料】   2015-9-18 16:51:37 作者:小于  浏览:699

形容词、副词是每年高考必考点之一,近几年语境综合化程度越来越高,难度加大。高考热点有:形容词、副词词义辨析;原级、比较级、最高级的使用;倍数的表达方法;比较等级的修饰语;多个形容词的排列顺序;常见形容词、副词的惯用法等。

考点1:在具体的语境中辨析形容词与副词的语义

从复现的频率来看,此点是高考对形容词、副词考查的第一大热点。解答此类题关键是要分析具体的语境,结合基本词义、搭配等来选择正确的答案。

经过统计,常见常考的形容词和副词有(按频度排列):even; interested; interesting; yet; hardly; just; therefore; though; too; very; common; effective; either; ever; fair; however; less; more; nearly; only; purposefully; rather; still; such; surprised; surprising

还有以下形容词和副词应当熟悉和掌握: a good many; a number of; acceptable; accidentally; actively; adequately; already; another; anxious; anyway; ashamed; attentively; bad; badly; besides; better; but; careful; changeable; cheap; comfortable; convenient; eagerly; easy; encouraging; enha-ncing; equal; even  though; eventually; fairly; far; fewer; following; formally; friendly; gen-erously; gradually; heavily; historic; hopefully; immediately; inaccessible; individual; inevit-able; initial; instead; invisible; largely; never; next; no; normal; nowadays; obviously; ordin-ary; other; otherwise; patient; plenty of; prac-tical; promoting; proper; quickly; readily; reasonable; remote; seldom; seriously; short; so; stimulating; traditional; unavailable; unav-oidable;

unfavorable; unfortunately; usual; va-rious; weak; well

考点2:考查形容词、副词的比较级、最高级及前面的修饰语

【备考清单】

1) 比较级、最高级的选用及应用范围

比较级、最高级常用于表示两者或多者间的比较。复习中须注意如下句型的用法:

① as + 原级adj. / adv. + as表示“和……一样”及not as / so + 原级adj. / adv. + as表示“不如……”。  

例如:

(94全国) John plays football as well as, if not better than, David.The piano in the other shop will be cheaper, but not as good.

② as + 原级adj. + a(n) + n. + as表示“跟……一样”。例如:

(2001全国) It‘s generally believed that teaching is as much an art as it is a science.

(2003北京) Our neighbour has as big a house as ours.

③ 比较级 + than表“比……更”及less …… than表示“不如……”。例如:

This year they have produced less grain than they did last year.

This road is wider than that one.

④ the + 比较级, the + 比较级表示“越……,就越……”。例如:

(93上海) It‘s believed that the harder you work, the better result you’ll get.

⑤ the +比较级+ of the + 名词 / 代词表示两者中“较……的”。例如:

Who is the younger of the two boys?

⑥比较级 + 比较级(越来越……)。___ 例如:

Our country is getting stronger and stronger.

Things became worse and worse from then on.

⑦用the last表示“最不可能的”、“最不适合的”、“最不希望的”等。例如:

The last thing I want to do is to offend you.我最不愿意做的就是惹你生气。

He is the last man I want to see.他是我最不希望见的人。

2) 形容词、副词原级、比较级、最高级前的程度状语

① 注意一些形容词或副词前的特定修饰语。

例如:

(2004广东) Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there because there wasn‘t always  that much to do. (那样多)

② 比较级前常可用still, even, much, far, a lot / little / few / bit, rather, any, a great deal, so far, by far, no等词修饰。(注意more不用于修饰比较级)。

例如:

(2000上海) You‘re standing too near the cinema. Can you move a bit farther?

③ 最高级可用序数词、much、 by far、 nearly、 almost等词修饰。

例如:

Africa is the second largest continent.

I like this film the very best / much the best.

考点3:形容词作表语,形容词、副词作后置定语

【备考清单】

1)形容词用于系动词后作表语

在最近几年高考试题中系动词加形容词作表语的情况出现过很多次。高考对此点的考查集中于区别到底是系动词还是一般动词并选择合适的形容词,而不是副词作表语。常见的联系动词有如下三类:

表示感觉的系动词:sound, look, taste, appear, smell, feel, seem等

表示变化的系动词:become, fall, get, turn, grow, make, come, go等

表示状态存在的系动词:remain, keep, stay, continue, prove, lie, stand等。例如:

2)形容词、副词作后置定语

【备考清单】

常见的几种修饰语后置的情况有:

①形容词修饰something, nothing, anything, everything等不定代词时要后置。

②present作“出席的”时只作后置定语。

③表语形容词如alive, asleep, awake, alone等只能作后置定语。

④副词修饰动词时, 放在动词之后。修饰形容词或副词时, 放在被修饰词之前。enough修饰形容词、副词时要后置,修饰名词时可放在名词的前后。形容词短语修饰名词作主语时要后置。用and或or连接的形容词作定语时要后置, 起强调作用。表数量的词作定语时要后置。副词修饰形容词的特殊词序, “so, as, how, too + 形容词 + 单数可数名词”。

考点4:倍数表达法

【备考清单】

三种常见倍数表达法:

1)倍数 + as + 原级形容词 + as ……。例如:

This road is three times as long as that one.

2)倍数 + the size / length / width / depth / height of ……。例如:

The river is five times the width of that one.

3)倍数 + 比较级 + than + 被比较对象。例如:

The sun is a million times larger than the earth.

考点5:多个形容词作定语时的排序问题及语序不同意义不同的词组

【备考清单】 多个形容词作定语时的排序一般遵从如下规律:如果两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时,与被修饰的名词关系较密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的密切程度差不多,则音节少的形容词在前,音节多的在后。

例如:a small wonderful gift

常用的顺序为:

限定词+描绘性形容词(beautiful)+大小、长短、高低等形容性形容词+(large, long, high)+新旧(old)+颜色(red)+产地(Chinese)+材料(wood)+用途(writing)+被修饰名词(desk)

记住以上规则是必要的,但还应多阅读、多体会,增强语感是关键。

例如:

all these last few days 最近的这些日子

some beautiful little red flowers 一些美丽的小红花

a high red brick wall 一堵高高的红砖墙

a beautiful white Japanese military jeep 一辆漂亮的白色日本军用吉普车

其中限定词的排列顺序为:

all / both / half / double / 倍数词 / 分数词 + 冠词 / 指示代词 / 物主代词 / 名词所有格 / some / any / no / every / each +基数词 / 序数词 / little / few / last / next / other / another / more,形容词的排列顺序为:大小、长短、高低、新旧、颜色、产地、材料、用途、类别等。

尽管以上给出了排序的基本规律,但由于所涉及的词太多,想要记清楚确实有难度。下面给出四句口诀辅助记忆:

所有这些词, 顺序往后数;

美小圆旧黄,法国木书房。

上面口诀中前两句主要用于解决排在最前边的多个限定词之间的顺序。它可以应用于all (所有) these (这些) last (顺序) few (数量) days短语中。这个短语基本上可以体现多个限定词之间的先后顺序。口诀后两句可对应一句话“This is a charming small round old yellow French wood reading room.”其中多个形容词之间的先后顺序基本上可以在这一句中得以体现,而且汉语歌诀的形式将使记忆更形象、更深刻。利用以上歌诀时最好是“抓两头”,即牢记排在最前边的限定词及排在最后边的形容词,如产地、材料、用途等,则能轻松突破此难点。

考点6:考查形容词与副词区别, 易混词带有-ly的形容词、副词及复合形容词

【备考清单】

1)注意如下有无-ly的形容词和副词的意义区别:

wide / high / deep(具体的意义)宽 / 高 / 深

widely / highly / deeply(抽象意义)广泛地 / 高度地 / 深深地

most十分、非常 / 最多(大)的

mostly主要地、绝大多数地、多半

close靠近地

closely密切地、仔细地

late迟的,迟到的

lately最近、近来

direct直接(主要用于谈论路程和时间,和straight意思相同)

directly直率地、立即

2)注意合成形容词本质上是一个形容词,其合成部份中的名词不能变为复数形式。

例如:

He wrote a two-thousand-word report.

His uncle is 6 feet tall. He is a forty-year old man.

3)“名词+ ly”构成的是形容词,而不是副词。

这类形容词有friendly, lovely, weekly, monthly, daily等

4)有些词既可以作形容词也可以作副词。

例如:

He got up late, so he was late for school again.

Can you see that straight road? Go straight along this road, you‘ll find the supermarket at the end.

【精选试题】 名校模拟题及其答案

1. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard _____ voice.

A. a better  B. a best  C. the better  D. the best

2. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is _____ known for his plays.

A. the best  B. more  C. better  D. the most

3. The plane flew smoothly ______ in the sky and people spoke ______ of the experienced pilot.

A. high;high  B. highly;highly  C. high;highly  D. highly;high

4. —— What do you think of the concert?—— Oh, it was______success.

A. a very  B. quite a  C .so  D. really

5. I haven‘t seen______ this since I collected stamps.

A. as old a stamp as  B. so an old stamp asC. stamp as old as  D. as an old stamp a

6.The task is too much for me, so I can‘t carry on ______any longer. I must get some help.

A. singly  B.simply  C.alone  D.lonely

7. Have your working conditions improved?

——No,___than before, I‘m afraid.

A. no better  B.a little batter  C.not worse  D.no worse

8. To their great relief,the missing child returned home, ______, after an absence of two weeks.

A.felt tired and sound  B.tiring and soundlyC.feeling tired but soundly  D.tired but sound

9. We must keep our room clean, for dirt and disease go______, you know.

A.hand in hand  B.step by step  C.from time ti time  D.one zfter another

10. How are you getting on with your classates?

——______. I‘ve got to know them all.

A. Far better  B.Much pleased  C.Very comfortable  D.Very good

答案与解析

1. A【解析】容易误选D,认为最高级前要用定冠词。其实此题最佳答案为A,该句可视为…I have never heard a better voice than her voice 之省略,全句句意为“她唱得多好啊!我从未听过她这么好的声音”。

2. C【解析】此题首先不宜选B或D,因为 well known 的比较级和最高级通常是 better known和best known,有时也可以是 more well known 和 most well known,但通常不能是 more known 和 most known.至于是选A还是C,这就要看语境。由于句中涉及的只有 stories 和 plays 两个对象,故应选比较级。

3. C【解析】 high in the sky 是个形容词短语,意为“高高地在天上”。同时,speak highly of 是个词组,表示“高度赞扬”的意思。

4. B【解析】 quite a , quite some用以指人或物不寻常,如We had quite a party.(我们的聚会不一般。)It must be quite some car.(那辆车可不比寻常。)

5. A【解析】表示“象这么旧的邮票”可用以 下形式表达:as old a stamp as this; a stamp as old as this; 否定句中前一个as可用so.

6. C【解析】句意:这项任务对我来说太重了,我再也不能单独自己做了,我必须找个助手。Singly各自的,一个一个地;simply简单的,仅仅,只不过;alone独立,单独;lonely孤独的,寂寞的。

7. A【解析】你们的工作条件改善了吗?——没有,和以前一样(不好)。no+比较级+ than 表示“两者同样不……的意思”。

8. D【解析】句意:使他们宽慰的是,丢失的孩子两周后又重返家园,虽然很疲惫但很健康。形容词作状语表示伴随或结果,不表示动作的方式。

9. A【解析】句意:我们必须保持室内卫生,你知道脏乱与疾病是分不开的。hand in hand——happenning together and closely connected密切相关的,同时发生的。本句还可说成:Dirt goes hand in hand with disease.

10. A【解析】句意:——你和你们班的同学相处的如何?——好多了,我和他们都认识了。答语为省略句,补全后应为:I‘m getting on far better with my classmates.


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​冠词

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