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首页  >  升本资料 >专项练习

英语非谓语动词浅析

【升本资料】   2017-10-24 9:40:26 作者:小于  浏览:682

非谓语动词

非谓语动词是指由动词变化而成,仍具有动词的性质与意义,但不能作为动词使用的词。通常有三种形式构成:

1.       由“to+动词原形”而成的不定式;

2.       由“动词原形+ing”而成的现在分词或动名词;

3. 由“动词原形+ed”而成的(包括动词的不规则变化)过去分词。

非谓语基本形式及在句中的成分一览表(以 do为例)   不定式现在分词动名词过去分词一般式肯定主动to dodoingdoing/被动to be donebeing donebeing donedone否定主动not to donot doingnot doing/被动not to be donenot being donenot being done/进行式肯定主动to be doing///被动/否定主动not to be doing被动/完成式肯定主动to have donehaving donehaving done/被动to have been donehaving been donehaving been done否定主动not to have donenot having donenot having done被动not to have been donenot having been donenot having been done完成进行时肯定主动to have been doing   被动/否定主动not to have been doing   被动/在句中成分主语、宾语、定语、表语、状语、补语、等除谓语之外所有成分定语、表语、状语、补语定语、表语、宾语、主语定语、表语、状语、补语注意:1.过去分词就是表示完成、被动的意义,不及物动词的过去分词只表示完成。不及物动词的不定式,现在分词和动名词没有被动式。

2.非谓语的否定式都是由“not+非谓语”构成。一、动词不定式的主要用法

1.To finish the work on time is not easy.(作主语)

(要准时完成这项任务并不容易。)

注意:动词不定式作主语时,也可以用形式主语“it”,

即It’s not easy to finish the work on time.

His wish was to become a teacher.(作表语)

(他的愿望是成为一名教师。)

There is nothing to worry about.(作定语)

(没有什么可以担心的。)

He ran to catch the bus. (作状语)

(他跑着去赶车。)

I want to see the new film.(作宾语)

(我想要去看这部新电影。)

He asked me to open the door.(作宾语补足语)

(他要我把门打开。)

注意:①动词不定式在作let,make,see,hear,feel,watch等使役、感观动词的宾语补足语时,不定式不带“to”

例:We often hear her sing in the next room.(我们经常听到她在隔壁房间唱歌。)

但上述动词用于被动语态的句子中,动词不定式变成主语补足语,这时必须带“to”。

例:He was heard to sing in the next room every morning.(明天早晨他总是被听到在隔壁房间唱歌。)

②动词不定式作宾语时,也可用形式宾语“it”。

例:They found it impossible to get everything ready in time.(他们发现及时准备好一切是不可能的。)

2.动词不定式也可以和疑问词who,what,which,whether,when,how,where等连用,构成不定式短语。

How to get the tickets is a question. (作主语)

(如何获得票子是个问题。)

I wonder which to choose. (作宾语)

(我不知选哪一个。)

The question is who to send the letter. (作表语)

(问题是谁去送信。)

1.       for + 名词(代词)+动词不定式的复合结构

It is important for us to learn English. (作主语)

(对我们来说学英语是重要的。)

It is for you to decide. (作表语)

例:While talking with her teacher, she felt nervous.(当与老师讲话时,她感到紧张。);

On hearing the good news, she jumped up with joy.(她一听到这好消息就高兴地跳起来。)

4.当分词作状语时,分词的逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。

Seeing the house on fire, he immediately ran to the phone-box.

=When he saw the house on fire, he immediately ran to the phone-box.

(当他看到房子着火,他马上跑到电话亭去。)

Given more time, we could do it better.

=If we were given more time, we could do it better.

(如果我们被给更多的时间,会做得更好。)

5.有一类动词如interest,excite,surprise,please,disappoint,satisfy,tire等,它们的现在分词往往用来表示事物的性质;而它们的过去分词则用来表示人的感受。

I am very interested in the interesting story.

(我对这则有趣的故事很感兴趣。)

We are all tired of such a tiring question.

(我们都对如此一个乏味的问题感到厌倦。)

6.现在分词的被动式being done与过去分词的区别。

现在分词的被动式being done表示正在进行的被动动作,而过去分词则强调已经完成的动作或持续的被动状态。

The problem being discussed now is very important.

(正在讨论的问题很重要。)

The problem discussed yesterday was very important.

(昨天讨论过的问题很重要。)

I saw many cars being repaired.

(我看到许多车正在被修理。)

I found the window broken.

(我发现窗被打碎了。)

Being cooked, the chicken gave out a wonderful smell.

(在被煮的时候,鸡散发出极好的味道。)

Led by the party, we have won great achievements.

(在党的领导下,我们取得了巨大的成果。)(由你来决定。)

I don’t think it good for you to leave now.(作宾语)

(我认为你现在离开并不好。)

I have bought the books for you to read.(作定语)

(我已注意:only+分词与only+不定式的区别

“only+现在分词”的意思是结果只是;

“only+不定式”意思是想不到、反而并没有料到的结果:

He lifted a rock only to drop on his own foot.

              (他搬起石头,想不到砸了自己的脚。)

       He died, only leaving debts.

                       (他死了,只留下一身债。)

③不定式与分词作宾补时的区别:

不定式作宾补表示动作已经完成,强调动作发生过的这一事实,强调由此行动而产生的结果;而现在分词作宾补强调动作的过程即动作正在进行。

       I found him coming into the building.

       =I saw that he was coming into the building.

       (我看到他正在走进大楼。)

       I found him come into the building.

       =He came into the building, and I saw that.

        (我看到他走进大楼。)

注意:如在句子中出现often、seldom、usually等频度副词,表示动作的经常性,而不是动作正在进行,所以通常用动词不定式。

3.不定式与动名词的区别:

①从含义上不定式表示具体某一次的动作,而动名词表示比较抽象的一般行为、习惯。

Saving money is important.

(存钱是重要的。)

To save money now is impossible.

(现在存钱是不可能的。)

My favourate sport is skating.

(我最喜欢的运动是滑冰。)

The first thing for us to do is to improve our pronunciation.

(第一件我们要做的事是改进发音。)

I love swimming, but I don’t love to swim in this dirty river.

(我喜欢游泳,但我不喜欢在这条脏河里游泳。)

注意:当表语是动名词时,主语也要用动名词;当表语是不定式时,主语也要用不定式。

例如:To live is to struggle.

       Seeing is believing.

②关于不定式与动名词在用法上的几点规定

*  只能用不定式的单词或词组(句型)

⑴It is important, It is necessary, It is fitting, It is advisable……等“It is+adj.+(for sb./of sb.)+不定式”的句型中

⑵在动词decide, wish, hope, promise, manage, arrange, choose, plan, desire, learn, want, ask, intend, attempt等后用不定式作宾语经把你要读的书买来了。)They handed in the exercises just in time for the teacher to correct.(作状语)(他们及时交了作业以便教师批改。)

二、分词的主要用法

分词分为现在分词和过去分词。现在分词与过去分词的区别在于:现在分词表示主动的、正在进行的动作,而及物动词的过去分词表示已经完成且被动的动作,不及物动词的过去分词只表示完成的意义。

Do you know the building being built down the street? (作定语)

(你知道在街的那头正在建造的大楼吗?)

This is one of the buildings built in the 1960s.(作定语)

(这是六十年代造的大楼之一。)

H*分词作定语可转换为定语从句

The news is surprising.(作表语)

(这消息令人惊讶。)

We are surprised at the news.(作表语)

(听到这消息我们感到惊讶。)

We heard her singing in the next room.(宾语补足语)

(我们听到她正在隔壁房间唱歌。)

I’m going to have my hair cut.(宾语补足语)

(我将去剪一下头发。)

H宾语补足语在被动语态中就是主语补足语。

如:She can be heard singing in the next room.

(While,When)Walking along the street, he met with his old friend.(状语)

(当他在路上走时,遇到了他的老朋友。)

Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful.(状语)

(从山顶看,这公园非常美丽。)

H 分词作状语可转化为状语从句或并列句。

注意:1.分词作定语,如果是单个分词,则放在所修饰的名词之前,如:spoken English, exciting news;

如果是分词短语,则要放在所修饰名词之后,如:the language spoken in this country, the boy standing there

2.分词作状语,表示原因、时间、条件时一般放在句首,如作为方式状语或伴随状态时,放在句首句尾均可。

例:Reading the letter, she couldn’t help crying.(读了信,她情不自禁哭了。)此句分词作原因状语;

She sat at the table, reading a letter.(她坐在桌边读信。)此句分词作伴随状态。

3.分词作为时间状语时,可在分词前加上while,when或on表示“当…时候”,或“一…就…”。

三、动名词的主要用法

动名词是由动词转化而来,在句子中起名词的作用,但又保持动词的特征,可有自己的宾语或状语,构成动名词短语。

Swimming is my favourate sport.(作主语)

(游泳是我最喜欢的运动。)

Talking is easier than doing.(作主语)

(说比做容易。)

注意:动名词短语作主语时也可用形式主语“it”

例如:It’s no good giving him too much money.(给他太多钱没有好处。)

My job is teaching English.(作表语)

(我的工作是教英语。)

Seeing is believing.(作表语)

(眼见为实。)

He enjoys listening to the music.(作宾语)

(他喜欢听音乐。)

Thank you for telling me the truth.(作宾语)

(谢谢你告诉我真相。)

There is a new swimming pool in our school.(作定语)

(在我们学校有一个新的游泳池。)

This kind of washing machine is out of date.(作定语)

(这种洗衣机已经过时了。)

注意:1.由物主代词或名词所有格加上动名词可以构成动名词复合结构。

例如:Do you mind my closing the door?(作宾语)

(你介意我关门吗?)

Tom’s learning maths well helped him in doing business.(作主语)

(Tom学好数学帮助他做好生意。)

但通常在非正式场合,可以用人称代词宾格代替物主代词,用名词普通格代替所有格。(这种结构在句首出现时除外。)

Do you mind me closing the door?

I remember Tom going there.

2.动名词作主语时,该主语被看作是单数;并列的动名词作主语时,被看作为复数。

Reading is my hobby.

(阅读是我的爱好。)

Saying and doing are two different things.

(说的和做的是两件不同的事。)

四、非谓语动词中的几组区别

1.动名词与现在分词的区别

①作定语时的区别:

现在分词作定语时,表示它所修饰的人或物正在进行的动作,可以用定语从句来改写;而动名词作定语时,表示所修饰的名词和性质及用途,不表示动作,可以用介词“for”来替代。

如living cells=The cells which are living.(living为分词)

(活细胞)

sleeping pills=the pills for sleeping(sleeping为动名词)

(安眠药)

②作表语时的区别:

动名词作表语表示主语的内容,具有名词的性质;而现在分词作表语则表示主语的状态及特征,具有形容词性质。

如My hobby is collecting stamps.(作动名词,也可以说成Collecting stamps is my hobby.)

(我的爱好是集邮。)

His hobby is interesting.(作现在分词,interesting具形容词性,此句主语和表语不能倒过来讲。)

2.不定式与分词的区别:

①不定式与分词作定语时的区别:

The meeting held last week is very important.(过去分词held作定语,表示动作已完成)

The meeting being held is very important.(现在分词[被动式]作定语,表示动作正在进行)

The meeting to be held next week is very important.(不定式[被动式]“to be held”作定语,表示未来将发生的动作。)

②不定式与分词作状语时的区别:

不定式一般可作原因、目的和结果状语,而分词可作时间、原因、条件、方式、让步、伴随等状语。但都需要注意句子的谓语动词与不定式、分词的逻辑主语的统一。

*  In order to catch the bus, he ran faster.

He ran faster so as to catch the bus.(他跑得更快为了赶上汽车。)

注意:in order to, so as to, in an effort to等表示目的,注意so as to只能放在句尾,而in order to句尾、句首都可放。

*  She is such a lovely girl as to be loved by everyone.

(她如此可爱,受到每个人的喜爱。)

He was too excited to say a word.

(他太激动以至一句话也说不出。)

so…as to, such…as to, enough to, too…to等表示结果或程度。

★Watching the film, she was moved to tears.(时间状语)

=When(While) she was watching the film, she was moved to tears.(当她看电影时,她被感动得流泪了。)

     Not having been there before, he got lost in the street.(原因状语)

=As he had not been there before, he got lost in the street.(由于没有来过这里,他在街上迷路了。)

分词所作的时间、原因、条件、让步、伴随等状语,可以该成各自的状语从句。

⑶疑问词加上不定式结构,如what to do, when to go, where to stay等

⑷在介词but, except, than, besides等后面,用不定式作宾语

注意:当在but, except, besides介词前有一个实意动词“do”时,用不带“to”的不定式。

例如:I have no choice but to stay.(无实意动词“do”用带“to”不定式)

I have nothing to do but wait.(有实意动词“do”,用不带“to”不定式)

注意:不定式不能直接做动词order, warn, invite等的宾语,只能做这些动词的宾语补足语。即order sb. to do/warn sb. to do等

*  只能用动名词的单词或词组(句型)

⑴在It’s no use doing, It’s no good doing, It’s a waste of time doing等句型用动名词。

⑵在动词suggest, avoid, enjoy, admit, consider, escape, excuse, permit, allow, finish, mind, practise, risk, miss, advise, imagine等动词后面用动名词作宾语。

⑶在词组:can’t help, can’t stand, burst out, give up, feel like, keep on, set about, object to, be used to, devote to, look forward to, stick to, pay attention to, insist on, persist in等后面用动名词作宾语。

注意:permit, avoid, risk, allow, advise, forbid等动词后带宾语补足语时只能用动词不定式。

例如:The teacher advised reading more books.(advise+宾语)

The teacher advised us to read more books.(advise+sb+宾语补足语)

You shouldn’t risk doing that.(risk+宾语)

You shouldn’t risk your life to do that.(risk+sb+宾语补足语)

           (你不应该冒生命危险去做那件事。)

*  既能用不定式,又能用动名词的单词有:

begin, start, continue, afford, propose, cease等

*  用不定式作宾语表示具体一次动作;用动名词作宾语表示一贯爱好,倾向的单词有:hate, love, like, prefer等

*  用动名词作宾语以主动表示被动;用不定式的被动式作宾语表示被动,在含义上完全相同,这些单词是:want, need, require

例:The bike needs repairing.

=The bike needs to be repaired.(这辆自行车需要被修理。)

The dininghall wants cleaning.

=The dininghall wants to be cleaned.(这个仓库需要被打扫。)

*  不定式作宾语与动名词作宾语意义完全不同的单词

⑴remember+to do记得要去做某事,动作还未发生。

remember+doing记得做过某事,动作已经发生。

且remember doing=remember having done

Please remember to lock the door when you leave.(在离开时记着要锁门。)

I remember giving him a birthday present last year.(我记得去年给过他生日礼物。)

⑵forget+to do忘记要去做某事,动作没有去做。

forget+doing忘记做过某事,动作已经发生,但忘记所做的事。

且forget doing=forget having done

I forgot to post the letter.(我忘记寄信了。)

I forgot closing the door.(我忘记把门关掉这件事。)

⑶regret+to do对要发生的事表示抱歉、遗憾,事情还未做。

regret+doing对于发生过的事表示后悔。

且regret doing=regret having done

I regret to say there is no wine in the bottle.(我很抱歉瓶里没有酒了。)

Tom regrets having told Mary the sad news.(Tom后悔告诉了Mary坏消息。)

⑷stop+to do停下正在干的事,转而去做另一件事。

stop+doing停下手上正在干的事。

Tom stopped to have a rest.(Tom停下来休息一会儿。)

When the teacher came in, the students stopped talking.

(老师进来时,学生们停止讲话。)

⑸try+to do设法、努力、尽力去做某事。

try+doing尝试做某事。

He tried to win the first prize.(他尽力想得第一。)

Since no one answered at the front door, he tried knocking at the back door.

(既然没有开前门,他试着敲后门。)

⑹mean+to do打算,有意图去做某事。

mean+doing 意味着,意思是。

I had meant to call you, but I forgot your phone number.

(我打算打电话给你,但忘了电话号码。)

Missing the bus means waiting for another hour.(错过这班车意味着再等一小时。)

4.分词的独立主格结构。

在分词作状语时,一个十分关键的问题是分词的逻辑主语必须与句子的主语相一致。但有时候为了表达更清楚,主语无法统一的时候,可以在分词前加上相应的逻辑主语,这种结构就称为分词的独立主格结构。

分词的独立主格的基本结构是:

名词(代词)+现在分词

名词(代词)+过去分词

The meeting being over, they all went out of the hall.

(会议结束,他们都走出会堂。)

All things considered, his composition is quit satisfactory.

(全部考虑过后,他的作文非常令人满意。)

注意:在独立主格中使用过去分词还是现在分词,要看逻辑主语,与逻辑主语的关系是主谓就用现在分词;与逻辑主语是动宾关系则用过去分词。


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