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首页  >  升本资料 >专项练习

虚拟语气详解

【升本资料】   2017-10-24 15:25:22 作者:小于  浏览:633

虚拟语气用来表示假想,而不表示客观存在的事实,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。英语中的语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气、虚拟语气三类。虚拟语气表示说话者做出的假设并非事实,或难以实现的,甚至表达相反的概念。另外表示主观愿望或表达某种强烈的感情时,也用虚拟语气。

语气种类编辑

陈述语气

表示动作或状态是客观存在的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句中。如:

Iraq is an Asian country.

  伊拉克是亚洲国家。(肯定句)

The US and British armies did not start the Second Gulf War until March 20,2003.

  美英联军直到2003年3月20日才发动第二次海湾战争。(否定句)

Who was it that they want to help?

  他们想要帮忙的人到底是谁呀?(疑问句)

How interesting my stay in China has been!

  我在中国的日子过的真有趣!(感叹句)

祈使语气

表示说话人对对方的请求、警告,建议或命令。如:

  Please come over here. 请到这边来。

Would you be so kind as to lend me a hand? 请帮个忙好吗?

Watch your steps! 当心!(走路)

Never be late again! 再也不要迟到了。

虚拟语气

虚拟语气表示说话人的主观愿望、猜疑、建议或与事实不符的假设等,而不表示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气是由句中的谓语动词的特殊形式表示出来的。如:

  If I were a bird,I would be able to fly in the air.

  如果我是一只小鸟,我就能在空中飞行。

I wish I could pass the examination.

  我希望我能通过考试。

May you succeed!

  祝你成功!

If only we had been college students last year!

  上一年我们要是大学生该多好!

应用条件编辑

在表示假想的虚假的、与事实相反的或难以实现的情况时用虚拟语气,表示主观愿望或某种强烈情感时,也用虚拟语气。即当一个人说话时欲强调其所说的话是基于自己的主观想法,愿望,假想,猜测,怀疑或建议,而不是根据客观实际,就用虚拟语气。主要是英语语法的一种表达。

条件状语从句中的应用编辑

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设或实际可能性不大的甚至完全不可能发生的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

例如:

If he doesn't hurry up,he will miss the bus.如果他不快点,他将错过巴士。( 真实)

If he is free,he will ask me to tell stories.如果他有空,他会要求我讲故事。(真实)

If I were you,I would go at once.如果我是你,我马上就会去。(我不可能是你。非真实,虚拟语气,与现在事实相反)

If there were no air,people would die.如果没有空气,人就会死亡。(不可能没有空气。非真实,虚拟语气,与现在事实相反)

1、表示与现在事实相反的情况

从句:If+主语+动词一般过去时(Be动词用were)

主句:主语+ should/would/might/could+do:

If I were you,I would take an umbrella.

  如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你)

If I knew his telephone number,I would tell you.

  如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道)

If there were no air or water,there would be no living things on the earth.

  如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水)

If I had any money with me,I could lend you some.

  如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。(事实:没有带钱)

If he studied harder,he might pass the exam.

  如果他再努力些,就能通过考试了。(事实:没有努力)

If I were you, I'd wear a shirt and tie.

  如果我是你,我就会穿衬衫和领带。(事实:我并不是你)[1]

2、表示与过去事实相反的情况

从句:If+主语+had+done

主句:主语+should/would/might/could+have done

eg:

If I had got there earlier,I should/would have met her.

  如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。

  (事实:去晚了)

If he had taken my advice,he would not have made such a mistake.

  如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。

  (事实:没有听我的话)

3、表示与将来事实相反

从句:①if+主语+were to do

②if+主语+should+do

③if+主语+动词一般过去式(be动词用were)

主句:主语+should/would/might/could+do

eg:

If he should come here tomorrow,I would talk to him.

  如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。(事实:来的可能性很小,不可能)

If there were a heavy snow next Sunday,we would go skating.

  如果下周日下大雪,我们就去滑冰。(事实:下雪可能性很小,不可能)

If she were to be here next Monday,I would tell her about the matter.

  如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事的始末。(事实:来的可能性很小,不可能)

4、 有时,虚拟条件句中,如果主句和从句的谓语动作若不是同时发生时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。这种条件句叫错综条件句。

①从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与正在发生的事实不符。

eg:

If I had worked hard at school,I would be an engineer now.

  如果我当时在学校学习刻苦的话,我现在就是一个工程师了

If they had informed us,we would not come here now.

  如果他们通知过我们的话,我们现在就不会来这里了。

②从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。

如:

If he were free today,we would have sent him to Beijing.

  如果他今天有空的话,我们就已经派他去北京了。

If he knew her,he would have greeted her.

  要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。

5、 当从句的谓语动词含有were,should,had时,if可以省略,这时从句要用倒装语序,即把were,should,had等词置于句首,这种多用于书面语。eg:

Should he agree to go there,we would send him there.

  要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去了。

Were she here,she would agree with us.

  如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。

Had he learnt about computers,we would have hired him to work here.

  如果他懂一些电脑知识的话,我们已经聘用他来这里工作了。

6、非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在副词、介词短语、上下文或其他方式表示出来,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句,在多数情况下,条件会暗含在短语中,如without…,but for…(要不是因为...)等

eg:

But for his help,we would be working now.

  要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。

Without your instruction,I would not have made such great progress.

  要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。

We didn't know his telephone number,otherwise we would have telephoned him.

  我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。

7、 有时,虚拟条件语气的从句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。

①省略从句

He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。

You could have passed this exam. 你本能通过这次考试的。

②省略主句

If I were at home now. 要是我现 在在家里该多好啊。

If only I had got it. 我要是得到它了该多好啊。

8.注意,在虚拟语气的从句中,动词be的过去时态一律用were,不用was。

If I were you,I would go to look for him.

如果我是你,就会去找他。[1]

目的状语从句中的应用编辑

1、在for fear that,in case,lest引导的从句中,若用虚拟语气时,从句谓语为:(should) + do。并且should能省略(for fear that,lest),in case不能省略

She examined the door again for fear that a thief (should) come in.

  她又把门检查了一遍,以防盗贼的进入。

He started out earlier lest he (should) be late.

  他早早地就出发了以防迟到。

2、在so that,in order that所引导的目的状语从句中,从句中的谓语为:can / could / may / might / will / would /should + do

He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer.

  他走近说话的人以便能听得更清楚。

He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word.

  他把信读得很仔细以便不漏掉一个字。

宾语从句中的应用编辑

一、 wish后的宾语从句

动词wish后接宾语从句时,从句谓语要用虚拟语气。若要表示与现在事实相反的愿望,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时(同样be动词换成were);若表示与过去事实相反的愿望,从句谓语用would / could+have +过去分词或者过去完成时had done(注意这里的情态动词不能用should);若表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的愿望,用would (could)+动词原形。

注意如果将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。如:

I wish I could be of some use. 我希望我能有什么用处。

  We wish he didn’t smoke. 我们希望他不吸烟。

  I wish prices would come down. 我希望物价能降下来。

  I wish the train would come. 我希望火车将会来。

  I wished I hadn't spent so much money. 但愿我没有花这么多钱。

二、表示“坚持”后的宾语从句

主要是指insist的宾语从句,从句谓 语由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国 英语中通常可以省略。如:

I insisted that he (should) stay. 我坚持要他留下。

  He insisted that I (should) go with them. 他坚持要我同他们一起去。[2]  

  Rose insisted that he be present. 罗斯坚持要他出席。

  The detective insisted that he should have a look. 警探坚持要查看。

注意:动词insist后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别是:若谓语动词所表示的动作尚未发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若谓语动词所表示的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。比较:

He insisted that I had read his letter. 他坚持说我看过他的信。

  He insisted that I should read his letter. 他坚持要我看他的信。

三、表示“命令”后的宾语从句

主要是指order, command的宾语从句,从句谓语由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语 中通常可以省略。如:

He ordered that it (should) be sent back. 他命令把它送回去。

  The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

  The King ordered that the man be released. 国王命令释放那人。

  He commanded that we (should) attack at once. 他命令我们立即发起进攻。

四、表示“建议”后的宾语从句

主要是指advise, suggest, propose, recommend等的宾语从句,从句 谓语由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。如:

He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。

  The doctor advised that he change his job. 医生劝他换工作。

  They recommend that this tax be abolished. 他们建议取消这种税。

  I suggest that we (should) have lunch right now. 我建议我们现 在就吃午饭。

  The committee proposed (that) Mr. Day be elected. 委员会建议推选戴先生。

  The doctor advised [suggested] that he (should) not smoke. 医生建议他不要抽烟。

  I propose that the matter be put to the vote at once. 我提议对此问题立刻进行表决。

  He proposed that Mr. O’Leary be the chairman. 他提议奥列利先生担任主席。

  She suggested that I (should) be responsible for the arrangements. 她建议我来负责进行安排。

注意:与动词insist相似,动词suggest后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别也是:若谓语动词所表示的情况尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气,此时suggest通常译为“建议”;若谓语动词所表示的情况为既成事实,则要用陈述语气,此时的suggest通常译为“表明”、“认为”。比较并体会:

He suggested that we (should) stay for dinner. 他建议我们留下吃饭。

  What he said suggested that he was a cheat. 他说的话表明他是个骗子。

  I suggested that you had a secret understanding with him. 我觉得你与他心照不宣。

五、表示“要求”后的宾语从句

主要是指ask, demand, require, request等后的宾语从句,从句谓语 由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常 可以省略。如:

I ask that he leave. 我要求他走开。

  He requires that I (should) appear. 他要求我出场。

  They require that I go at once. 他们要求我立刻走。

  I demand that John (should) go there at once. 我要求约翰立即到那里去。

  I requested that he should use his influence on my behalf. 我请求他为我施用他的影响。

  He asked that the message be given to Madame immediately. 他要求把信息立即带给夫人。

  They demanded that the right to vote be given to every adult man. 他们要求给予每个成年男子以选举权。

六、表示“提议”“投票”后的宾语从句

主要是指move, vote等后的宾语从句,从句谓语由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。如:

I move that we accept the proposal. 我提议通过这项提案。

  Mr. Chairman, I beg to move that the meeting be adjourned. 主席先生,我提议休会。

  Congress has voted that the present law be maintained. 国会投票决定维持现 在这条法律。

  Claudel moved that Norwood should be made a member of the committee. 克洛戴尔提出动议,让诺伍德当一名委员。

七、表示“敦促”后的宾语从句

主要是指动词urge后的宾语从句,从句谓语由“should+动词 原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。如:

He urges that the restrictions be lifted. 他敦促取消这些限制。

  He urged that they go to Europe. 他敦促他们到欧洲去。

  He urged that the rates should be reduced. 他敦请减轻捐税。

  He urged that the matter should go to arbitration. 他极力主张这件事要提交仲裁。

  They urged that relief work should be given priority. 他们敦促将救济工作放在优先位置。

八、表示“安排”后的宾语从句

主要是指动词arrange后的宾语从句,从句谓语由“should+动词原形”构 成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。如:

He arranged that I should go abroad. 他安排我去国外。

  I arranged that Tom should meet them. 我安排好叫汤姆去接他们。

  They arranged that the minister should be met at the airport. 他们安排在机场迎接这位部长。

  It was arranged that they should leave the following spring. 已安排好他们第二年春天离开。

  They’ve arranged that I should absent myself for part of the meeting. 他们安排好让我一部分时间不在开会现场。

九、表示“希望”“打算”后的宾语从句

主要是指动词desire, intend后的宾语从句,从句谓语由“should+动词原形”构成,其 中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。如:

She desires that he do it. 她希望他做此事。

  They intended that the news (should) be suppressed. 他们打算封锁这条消息。

  I desire the patient should have a bath every day. 我希望病人每天洗澡。

十、表示“指示”后的宾语从句

主要是指动词direct后的宾语从句,从句谓语由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。 如:

The general directed that the prisoners should be set free. 将军指示释放那些俘虏。[1]

倒装

有时可将条件从句的连词if省略,但此时应用倒装句型,即把从句中的 等提到句首:

Were I Tom,I would refuse. 如果我是汤姆,我会拒绝。

Should it be necessary,I would go. 假若有必要,我会去的。

Had it not been for the bad weather we would have arrived on time. 若不是天气坏,我们就准时到达了。

【注】

① 若条件从句为否定句,否定词not应置于主语之后,而不能与were,should,had 等缩略成Weren’t,Shouldn’t,Hadn’t而置于句首。

② 有时省略if后提前的had不是助动词:

Had I time,I would come. 假若我有时间,我会来的。(=If I had time…)

定语从句中的应用编辑

句型It is 或was (high) time that +完整句子,句子的谓语动词形式用一般过去时或者should do形式且该should不可以省略。(注意与宾语从句中的用法区别开来)例:

It is (high) time that we should go to school 也可以写成It is (high)time that we went to school.

注:若该句型略微调整成It is或was the first time that +完整句子(first也可能是其他序数词),那这个句子谓语动词不再采用上述形式,而是,若主句用的是is,则that后面的句子的谓语动词部分用现在完成时(have/has done):若主句用的是was,则that后面的句子的谓语动词部分用过去完成时(had done)

It is my first time that I have seen such a beautiful girl. 这是我第一次看见这么漂亮的女孩。

be的用法编辑

主语和动词be

若主从句主语一致,且谓语部分包含有动词be,通常可将主语和动词be省略:

If repaired earlier,the tractor would not have broken down.

要是早点儿修一下,拖拉机就不会抛锚了。(=If it had been repaired earlier…)

“it+be”的省略

If necessary,I would send more farmhands to help you.

如果需要的话,我会派更多的人去帮你。(=If it was necessary,…)

其他用法编辑

1、一想要(desire) 一宁愿(prefer) 一坚持(insist)二命令(order , command) 三建议(advise , suggest , propose/recommend) 四要求(demand , require , request , ask)中,无论主句谓语动词为何种时态,从句的谓语动词都用:"should + do"。should可以省略。

eg:He suggested that we (should) take the teacher's advice.

He insisted that we (should) take the teacher's advice.

He demand that we (should) take the teacher's advice.

He ordered that we (should) take the teacher's advice.

insist意为“坚持某种动作”才用虚拟语气;意为“坚持某种观点,某个事实”则不用虚拟语气。

eg:

He insists he is a student.

  他坚持说他是个学生。

这个语句表示的是事实,因此在这个语句中不能使用虚拟语气。

suggest意为“建议”才用虚拟语气,意为“暗示”或“表明”则不用虚拟语气。

eg:

His face suggests that he looks worried .

  他的表情表明了他很担心。

这个句子本身是事实,因此它就没有用到虚拟语气。

2、表情绪,观点的形容词或名词也要用虚拟语气.如:necessary、important、impossible、natural、strange、surprising、funny、right、wrong、better、a pity ,the shame ,no wonder等。

句型:It is.......that +主语从句,从句的谓语动词常用should+原形且should的省略要看情况而定。

eg:

Do you think it is necessary that he (should)not be sent to Lingbao.(should表示“建议”的语气,可省。)

It is strange that such a person should be our friend.(should表示“竟然”的语气,不可省。)

奇怪的是这样一个人会成为我们的朋友。

3、礼貌委婉地表达情况的紧迫性可用虚拟语气。表示紧迫的形容词如:advisable ,best,critical,desirable,essential,imperative,important,necessary,urgent,vital等.

句型:It is .....+主语从句.

eg:

It's vital that you make a decision right now .

你立刻就做决定是至关重要的。

4、 在even if,even though 所引导的让步状语从句中用may/might+动词原形,may/might可以省略,表示与现 在相反的情况;从句用过去式,表示与过去相反的情况,类似的词有though/even though/whatever/however/so long as; 主句、从句的结构与if所引导的条件从句结构相同。

eg:

Even if he were here himself,he should not know what to do.

  即使他亲自来也不知该怎么办。(事实:他没来)

Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here.

  即使华佗在世也救不了他。(事实:华佗不在世)

5、 在whatever,whichever,whenever,whoever,wherever,however,no matter wh-等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为:

指现 在或将来:may +do。

eg:

We will finish it on time no matter what may happen.

  不管发生什么事,我们都要按时完成。

We will find him wherever he may be.

  无论他在哪里,我们都要找到他。

I will wait for him no matter how late he may come.

  不管他来的多么晚,我都会等他。

指过去:may +have done。

eg:

You mustn't be proud whatever great progress you may have made.

  不管你取得了多么大的进步,你也不能骄傲。

We must respect him no matter what mistakes he may have made.

  不管他犯过什么错误,我们必须尊敬他。

6、一般would rather,had rather,would sooner等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望,故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:

过去 had + done

现 在 过去时(be 用were )

将来 过去时(be 用were ) (would rather将来情况用一般过去时)

eg:

I'd rather you had seen the film yesterday.

  我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。

I'd rather you were here now.

  我倒想你现在在这儿。

We'd rather you went here tomorrow.

  我们倒想你明天去那儿

注:注意would rather,had rather,would sooner的细微差别,可以百度一下查查。

7、虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中,表示:“早该做某事了”时,定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气的结构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + do(should不可省略)(优先使用动词过去式),即从句用虚拟过去式。

It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school.

  我该去学校接我的女儿了。

It is high time you should go to work.

  你早该上班了。

8、 简单句中的虚拟语气

(1) 说话时,为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌,言语常使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构形式常为:would / could / might / should +do。

eg:

Would you mind my shutting the door?

  你介意我把门关起来吗?

You should always learn this lesson by heart.

  你要把这个教训牢记于心。

  I should agree with you.

我本该同意你的观点。(委婉的不同意)

(2)表示“祝愿”时,常用may +主语+ do。

eg:

May you have a good journey!

  祝你一路顺风。

May your youth last forever!

  祝你青春永驻。

(3)表示强烈的“愿望”、“祝愿”时,常用do。

eg:God bless us. 上帝保佑。

(4)习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。

① 提出请求或邀请。eg:

Would you like to have a talk with us this evening?

  今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗?

Could I use your bike now?

  我可以用一下你的单车吗?

② 陈述自己的观点或看法。eg:

I should be glad to meet you.

  见到你我会很高兴。

I would try my best to help you.

  我会尽力帮助你。

③提出劝告或建议。eg:

You'd better ask your father first.

  你最好先问一问你的父亲。

You should make a full investigation of it first.

  你应该先全面调查一番。

④ 提出问题。eg:

Do you think he could get here on time

  你认为他能按时来吗?

Do you expect he would tell us the truth?

  你期望他会告诉我们真相吗?

⑤表示对过去情况的责备时,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:情态动词+ have done。

eg:

You should have got here earlier. 你早该到这里了。

You should have returned it to him. 你早该把它还给他了。

9、虚拟语气在方式状语从句的应用。方式状语从句词条。

条件从句编辑

这样的省略通常需要借助一定的上下文,即省略条件从句后,所剩下的主句的意思在一定的上下文中意思是清楚的:

I might see her personally. It would be better. 我可以亲自去看她,这样好一些。

  (=If I saw her personally,it would be better.)

情况一

条件暗含在短语中

如:

We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.

  我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。(暗含条件是otherwise)

Without your help,we wouldn’t have achieved so much.

  没有你的帮助,我们不可能取得这么大的成绩。

  (暗含条件是介词短语without your help)

But for your help,I would not have succeeded in the experiment.

  如果没有你的帮助,我的实验就不会成功。(暗含条件是but for your help)

It would cause great trouble not to lubricate the bearing immediately.

  不立即润滑轴承就会引起很大的故障。

  (暗含条件是not to lubricate the bearing immediately)

情况二

条件暗含在上下文中

如:

I would not have done it that way.

  我是不会那么做的。(可能暗含if I were you)

I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have come to help you.

  我那天很忙。否则我会来帮你的。(可能暗含if I hadn’t been so busy.)

You might come to join us in the discussion.

  你可以参加我们的讨论。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

I would have bought the DVD player.

  我是会买下那台影碟机的。(可能暗含if I had the money)

But for the storm,we should have arrived earlier.

  要不是碰到暴雨,我们还会早些到。(可能暗含if it had not been for the storm)。

误区

1.混合条件句的主从句时态不会灵活变化;

2.省略if时,句子调整不正确;

3.不会去找意思中的“应该”含义;

4.陷在虚拟中出不来,把真实条件句当成虚拟条件句。

【典型例题】

1) If I had seen the movie, I ______________ you all about it now.

  A. would tell B. will tell C. have told D. would have told

  解析:错选D。从句时态为过去完成时,表示与过去事实相反;而主句有now,点明时间为现在,应该选择A。

2)The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.

  A.will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained

  解析:答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

3)_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.

  A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

  解析:答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

4). My suggestion is that she ________ more exercise, which will do a lot ofgood to her.

  A. takes B. must take C. take D. took

  解析:错选A。本题要表达“我的建议是她(应该)多锻炼,这对她会有很大好处。”符合虚拟的条件,所以正确答案为C。空前面省略了should.



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