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首页  >  升本资料 >随堂讲义

公共英语语法——状语从句

【升本资料】   2020-8-29 10:53:10 作者:小于  浏览:241

状语从句分为时间、地点、条件、原因、目的、让步、比较、方式、结果状语从句等。

Number1

时间状语从句时间状语从句注意事项

when, while和as的区别

when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬间动词。并且when有时表示“就在那时”。例如:

When she came in, I stopped eating. (瞬间动词)

When I lived in the countryside, I used to carry some water for him.(延续性的动词)

While引导的从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生(或者相对应)。并且while有时还可以表示对比。例如:

While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV.

(was reading是延续性的动词,was reading和was watching同时发生)

I like playing football while you like playing basketball.(对比)

As表示“一边……一边”,as引导的动作是延续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生;as也可以强调“一先一后。例如:

We always sing as we walk.

(as表示“一边……一边”)

As we was going out, it began to snow.

(as强调句中两个动作紧接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)

As, when, while的辨析

as when while都表示主、从句动作同时发生,三者差异如下:

表示“一边。。。一边"的意思

as 强调两个动作同时进行,并表示对比时

用于发生时间较短时

由since引导的时间状语从句。

since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。例如:

I have been in Beijing since you left.

It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing.

Number2

地点状语从句

地点状语从句一般由连接副词where, wherever等引导,已经形成了固定的句型,

由连词where和复合关系词wherever (=no matter where )引导. 例如:

句型1:Where+地点从句,(there)+主句。

【注意】此句型通常译成“哪里……哪里就……”;主句在从句后面时,there可用可不用;如果主句在从句的前面时,一般都不用there。

句型2:Anywhere/ wherever+地点从句,+主句。

【注意】anywhere本身是个副词,但是,常可以引导从句,相当于连词,意思相似于wherever, anywhere引导的从句可位于主句之前,也可以位于主句之后。而wherever本身就是个连词,表示“在何处,无论何处”。

Number3

条件状语从句

条件状语从句由连词if, unless (=if not) 引导。

难点提示:用条件状语从句时要注意时态的正确使用,当主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时.

He will not leave if it isn’t fine tomorrow.

一般将来时,一般现在时

They are going to have a picnic if it doesn’t rain next week.

一般将来时,一般现在时

Number4

原因状语从句由连词because, since, as引导, 也可由for, now that 等词引导

难点——because , since , as , for,辨析

1)because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或 since。

I didn’t go, because I was afraid.

Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.

2)由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗 号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。

He is absent today, because / for he is ill.

He must be ill, for he is absent today.

3) as和for的区别:

通常情况下,as引导的从句在主句前,for引导的从句在主句后。例:

As the weather is cold, I stay at home.(同义句)

I stay at home, for the weather is cold.

Number5

目的状语从句

目的状语从句由连词that, so that, so…that , in order that 引导。

1.so that 以至, 以便

I’ll run slowly so that you can catch up with me. (目的)

I opened the window so that fresh air might come in. (目的)

2.in order that=so that:为了

We shall let you know the details soon in order that you can/may make your arrangements. (目的)

3. despite= in spite of  

Number6

结果状语从句

结果状语从句由连词( so )that, so…that, such…that, so much/many…that引导。

1. so…that 如此…以至于

The scientist’s report was so instructive that we were all very excited.

He always studied so hard that he made great progress.

2. such…that 如此。。。以至

It’s such nice weather that all of us want to go to the park.

3. 比较:so和 such

其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little(这四个形容词表多或表少时)连用,形成固定搭配。

Number7

让步状语从句

表示让步的状语从句由连词 though, although引导.

though, although当虽然讲, 都不能和but连用. Although,(though)…but的格式是不对的.但是他们都可以同yet (still) 连用. 所以though (although)…yet(still)的格式是正确的.

although, though 辨析

although 不能though 那样用作副词, 放在句末表示强调时要用even though.

He is looking fit, though.

He is quite experienced, he is young, though.

Number8

比较状语从句

比较状语从句主要运用于形容词和副词的原级,比较级及最高级的句子之中。

原级

1. as…as 和。。。一样

Jack is as tall as Bob.

2. not so(as)…as …和不一样

She is not so (as)outgoing as her sister.

她不如她姐姐外向。

比较级

more…than (更)

This book is more instructive than that one.。

最高级

1. The most…in/of

This book is the most interesting of the three.

2. the + 形容词+est…of/in

This road is the busiest street in our city.

Number9

方式状语从句

方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。

1) as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是“正如……”,“就像”,多用于正式文体,例如:

Always do to the others as you would be done by.

As water is to fish, so air is to man.

Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds.

2) as if, as though

两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作“仿佛……似的”,“好像……似的”,例如:

1. They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.

 (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

2. He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting.

(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

3. It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon.

(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。)

说明:as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,例如:

1. He stared at me as if seeing me for first time.

2. He cleared his throat as if to say something.

3. The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger.

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